Automotive Coatings Formulation

Automotive Coatings Formulation

Automotive Coatings Formulation
The automobile industry and the varnish manufacturers use a considerable expenditure to produce particularly appealing surfaces. The main focus in the painting industry is on the protection against corrosion, weathering, chemical and mechanical influences as well as obtainment of appealing surfaces. Several manufacturers specialize exclusively in automobile lacquers.

This book deals with the composition and the production of the most difficult components as well as their physical and application technology characteristics. Application technology characteristics describe the application behaviour, the task of protection and the responding appearance.

Ulrich Poth approaches the people who are entrusted with raw materials, systems and application procedures. Furthermore, Automotive Coatings Formulation is addressed to all chemists, physicists, engineers and other technically interested persons.

Table of contents
1 Introduction
2 General aspects of coatings
2.1 Composition of paints
2.1.1 Resins
2.1.2 Pigments and pigment-like substances
2.1.2.1 Colour generation
2.1.2.2 Inorganic pigments
2.1.2.3 Organic pigments
2.1.2.4 Effect substances
2.1.2.5 Functional pigments
2.1.3 Solvents and dispersing agents
2.1.4 Additives
2.2 Application form
2.2.1 Organic solutions
2.2.2 Waterborne solutions
2.2.3 Waterborne dispersions
2.2.4 Non-aqueous dispersions
2.2.5 100 % systems
2.2.6 Powder coatings
2.2 Film forming
2.2.1 Physical drying
2.3.2 Chemical film forming
2.4 Production process
2.5 Application methods
2.6 Coating systems
3 Automotive OEM coatings
3.1 History of automotive coatings
3.2 Automotive coatings as a multilayer system
3.3 Application processes for automotive coatings
3.4 Pre-treatment and primers
3.4.1 Substrates and corrosion
3.4.2 Pre-treatment
3.4.3 Advent of electro primers
3.4.4 Requirements and properties
3.4.5 Composition of cathodic electro primers
3.4.5.1 Epoxy resins
3.4.5.2 Amine modification of epoxy resins
3.4.5.3 Further modifications
3.4.5.4 Grinding resins
3.4.5.5 Crosslinkers
3.4.5.6 Pigments
3.4.5.7 Additives
3.4.5.8 Overall primer formulation
3.4.6 Application of electro primers
3.4.6.1 Deposition
3.4.6.2 Process sequence and equipment
3.4.7 Prospects for electro primers
3.4.8 Underbody seals and seam sealants
3.4.8.1 Underbody seals
3.4.8.2 Seam sealing
3.5 Primer surfacers
3.5.1 Development of primer surfacers
3.5.2 Requirements and properties
3.5.3 Composition of solvent-borne primer surfacers
3.5.3.1 Saturated polyesters
3.5.3.2 Amino resins
3.5.3.3 Blocked polyisocyanates
3.5.3.4 Pigments for primer surfacers
3.5.3.5 Solvents
3.5.3.6 Additives
3.5.3.7 Formulations
3.5.4 Application
3.5.5 High-solid primer surfacers
3.5.6 Waterborne primer surfacers
3.5.6.1 Resins for waterborne primer surfacers
3.5.6.2 Formulations for waterborne primer surfacers
3.5.7 Powder primer surfacers
3.5.7.1 Resins for powder primer surfacers
3.5.7.2 Formulation and production of powder primer surfacers
3.5.7.3 Application
3.6 Topcoats
3.6.1 Development of topcoats for automotive coatings
3.6.2 Requirements on topcoats
3.6.2.1 Application behaviour
3.6.2.3 Resistance properties
3.6.3 Composition of OEM topcoats
3.6.3.1 Alkyd resins
3.6.3.2 Melamine resins
3.6.3.3 Other resins
3.6.3.4 Inorganic pigments
3.6.3.5 Organic pigments
3.6.3.6 Pigmentation of topcoats
3.6.3.8 Additives
3.6.4 Application
3.6.5 Topcoats with reduced VOC emissions
3.7 Basecoats
3.7.1 Development of basecoats
3.7.2 Demands on conventional basecoats
3.7.2.1 Conferring effects
3.7.2.2 Application behaviour
3.7.2.3 Resistance
3.7.3 Composition of solvent-borne basecoats
3.7.3.1 Cellulose acetobutyrate
3.7.3.2 Polyesters
3.7.3.3 Amino resins
3.7.3.4 Rheological additives
3.7.3.5 Effect substances
3.7.3.6 Coloured pigments
3.7.3.7 Solvents
3.7.3.8 Other additives
3.7.3.9 Formulation example
3.7.4 Basecoats with increased application solids
3.7.5 Waterborne basecoats
3.7.5.1 Resins for waterborne basecoats
3.7.5.2 Rheological additives
3.7.5.3 Pigments and effect substances
3.7.5.4 Cosolvents and additives
3.7.5.5 Formulation example and application
3.7.6 Solid colour waterborne basecoats
3.7.7 Alternatives
3.8 Clearcoats
3.8.1 Development of clearcoats
3.8.2 Requirements on automotive OEM clearcoats
3.8.2.1 Application behaviour and surface of clearcoats
3.8.2.2 Weathering resistance
3.8.2.3 Chemical resistance
3.8.2.4 Mechanical resistance
3.8.2.5 Scratch resistance
3.8.2.6 Windscreen bonding
3.8.2.7 Protection in transport
3.8.3 Composition of clearcoats
3.8.3.1 Acrylic resins
3.8.3.2 Polyesters
3.8.3.3 Amino resins
3.8.3.4 Polyisocyanates
3.8.3.5 Blocked polyisocyanates
3.8.3.6 Solvents
3.8.3.7 Levelling agents
3.8.3.8 Light stabilisers
3.8.3.9 Rheological additives
3.8.3.10 Formulation example
3.8.3.11 Nanoparticles for clearcoats
3.8.3.12 Lotus effect
3.8.3.13 Sealers for clearcoats
3.8.4 Application
3.8.5 Clearcoat with increased solid contents
3.8.6 Waterborne clearcoats
3.8.7 Powder clearcoats
3.8.8 UV clearcoats
3.9 Reductions in solvent emissions
4 Repair coatings
4.1 Surfaces and treatments
4.2 Primers
4.3 Primer surfacers
4.4 Putties
4.5 Topcoats
4.6 Basecoats
4.7 Clearcoats
5 Plastic coatings for automobiles
5.1 Coatings for interior parts
5.2 Coatings for attached parts
6 Coatings for heavy loader
7 Alternatives and outlook
Literature
Acknowledgements

Automotive Coatings Formulation - Ulrich Poth



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