Titanium Dioxide Production, Properties and Effective Usage

Titanium Dioxide Production, Properties and Effective Usage

Titanium Dioxide Production, Properties and Effective Usage
This Second Revised Edition, completely revised edition contains a wealth of information on the properties and use of titanium dioxide pigments. It gives the reader a comprehensive insight into how titanium dioxide works and its possible applications, as well as discussing the current state of development and its use in various forms for UV absorbers, effect pigments and catalytic materials.

Practitioners will especially welcome the fact that Chapter 4 now includes information on the scope for, and limitations on, replacing titanium dioxide pigments in formulations.

Titanium Dioxide
Production, Properties and Effective Usage 2nd Revised Edition

The first edition of “Titanium Dioxide” was published in 2003. In the meantime, it has been sold out and the decision was made to bring out a second edition. This was taken as an incentive to revise all of the chapters in view of new information that has appeared since that time or, otherwise, has only yet come to the attention of the author.

For the practitioner, this book is conceived as a source of information on the properties and use of titanium dioxide pigments. Aspects concerning pigmentary titanium dioxide are primarily dealt with in the Chapters 2 to 6 of this booklet. For the sake of scrutiny, Chapter 4 was complemented by some information on the possibilities and limits of replacing titanium dioxide pigments in formulations. In the remaining chapters, the current state of the development and use of titanias as UV absorbers and effect pigments as well as catalytic materials is outlined. Whereas this can only be a momentary picture, the same is especially true for the utilization of TiO2 in photovoltaic cells and as stationary phases in chromatography.

Nevertheless, for the sake of completeness, these fields of potential use are at least briefly mentioned in the last two chapters of this revised edition of the book and some references are given.

My gratitude goes to Mr. Dirk Marschke for revising the information on the legislative requirements for titanium dioxide pigments and for discussions on the impact of the REACH legislation on the titanium dioxide industry as well as industry as a whole. Furthermore, I would like to especially thank Dr. Bernd Proft for calculating the scattering efficiencies of air bubbles in composite materials in comparison to titanium dioxide pigments. The helpful input I received from many of my colleagues at crenox GmbH, now Sachtleben Pigment GmbH, is also gratefully acknowledged.
Jochen Winkler
Krefeld/Germany, September 2012
Titanium Dioxide Production, Properties and Effective Usage  
Table of Contents

1 Introduction
2 Physical, chemical and toxicological properties
2.1 Physical properties of titanium dioxide
2.2 Chemical properties of titanium dioxide
2.3 Toxicological properties of titanium dioxide
2.3.1 Oral intake
2.3.2 Parenteral uptake
2.3.3 Percutaneous uptake
2.3.4 Hypodermic (through the skin) injection
2.3.5 Inhalation
3 Production
3.1 Raw materials
3.2 Sulfate process
3.3 Chloride process
3.4 Inorganic and organic surface treatments
4 Optical properties
4.1 Fundamentals of color measurement
4.1.1 CIELAB-values of titanium dioxide pigments
4.2 Electromagnetic waves (“radiation”)
4.3 Light absorption, light scattering, reflection and diffraction
4.3.1 Particle size dependency of light absorption.
4.3.2 Particle size dependency of light scattering
4.4 Mie theory
4.4.1 PVC – depency of light scattering
4.5 Kubelka-Munk theory – relative scattering power
4.6 Determination of the spectral scattering coefficient
4.7 Hiding power
4.7.1 Standardized methods for determining hiding power
4.7.2 Hiding power of sulfate and chloride grade pigments
4.8 Lightening power
4.9 Color tint
4.10 Gloss and haze
4.11 Substitute materials for titanium dioxide pigments
5 Photo catalytic properties.
5.1 Chalking cycle
5.2 Photo activity of anatase and rutile
5.3 Accelerated and natural weathering
5.4 Accelerated tests for monitoring photo activity
6 Dispersing
6.1 Steps taking place during dispersion
6.2 Wetting
6.3 Mechanical de-agglomeration
6.3.1 Mill base formulation
6.3.2 Agglomerate strength
6.3.3 Relationship between time length of dispersion, mechanical power input and dispersion success
6.4 Stabilization against flocculation
6.4.1 Electrostatic stabilization
6.4.2 Zeta potential
6.4.3 Stabilization by adsorption of polyelectrolytes
6.4.4 Adsorption of ions
6.4.5 Steric (entropic) stabilization
6.5 Rub out effect and Benard cells
6.6 Final remarks
7 Nano-titanium dioxide
7.1 Production of nano-titanium dioxides.
7.2 Properties of titanium dioxide nano-particles
7.3 Nano-titanium dioxides as UV absorbers
7.4 Nano-titanium dioxides as effect pigments.
8 Titanium dioxide in catalysis
8.1 DeNOx catalysts
8.2 Diesel catalysts
8.3 Titanium dioxide in photo catalysis
8.4 Titanium dioxide as a catalyst for the production of biodiesel
9 Titanium dioxide in photovoltaic cells and chromatography

Titanium Dioxide hardcover
Production, Properties and Effective Usage 2nd Revised Edition
by Jochen Winkler (Author)

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