Understanding Coatings Raw Materials Book

Understanding Coatings Raw Materials Book

Understanding Coatings Raw Materials
What are paints and coatings composed of? This efficient reference book offers an optimum overview of the different constituents of the different types of coatings, explaining the chemistry, system and impacts of coating raw materials.

That way, newcomers to the field of coatings gain a quick basic knowledge whereas chemists and laboratory assistants will find valuable insights on future trends and developments in the field of raw materials.
Understanding Coatings Raw Materials

From Author :

The coating industry is highly raw material intensive and uses a wide range of these raw materials, from relatively inexpensive minerals to high performance polymers and pigments to highly engineered specialty additives. Understanding Coatings Raw Materials intends to provide a comprehensive overview of the raw materials used in contemporary paints and coatings.

Significant advances have been made in the field of polymeric materials and coatings during the past few decades. Ever since the negative impacts of solventbased coatings on the environment and human health were recognized, the coating industry has been striving not only to address these impacts but also to offer better performing products to meet the ever growing demands to decorate, protect, and provide new functionalities to surfaces. This has led to the emergence and commercialization of such advanced technologies as waterborne coatings, high-solid coatings, powder coatings, radiation curable coatings, and bio-based as well as nanomaterial based coatings, to name a few.

The raw materials used in today’s advanced coatings are incredibly diverse and innovative compared to those used a few decades before. Understanding this growing palette of coating raw materials and their specific roles and interactions with each other is increasingly challenging, both for new entrants as well as those already working in the coating industry. This book is divided into five chapters.

The first chapter introduces readers to the historical development and fundamentals of coatings and their compositions, thus putting the topics that follow into perspective. The following chapters cover individual families of raw materials – resins, pigments and extenders, solvents and additives – with adequate detail and practical examples in keeping with the scope of this book.

This book in hand is intended for people involved in sectors of the industry related to research and product development, production, quality assurance and testing, the supply chain, coating system specifications, technical service and marketing. Due to the extensive coverage of these topics, this book will also be very useful for undergraduate and graduate students seeking to learn the fundamentals of coating raw materials. It will also serve as a reference book for any reader interested in paints and coatings.
Vijay Mannari, Ph.D.
Chintankumar J. Patel,

Contents of Understanding Coatings Raw Materials Book

1 Introduction to paints and coatings
1.1 Why paints and coatings?
1.2 Historical perspective
1.3 Anatomy of paints and coatings
1.3.1 Resins or binders
1.3.2 Pigments
1.3.3 Additives
1.3.4 Solvents
2 Binders
2.1 Introduction
2.1.1 Introduction to polymers
2.1.2 Thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers.
2.1.3 Requirements of resins and binders
2.2 Natural binders
2.2.1 Rosin (colophony)
2.2.2 Bituminous binders
2.2.3 Natural oils for surface coatings
2.2.3.1 Composition of natural oils
2.2.3.2 Classification of oils in the coating industry
2.2.3.3 Modified oils
2.3 Alkyd resins
2.3.1 Chemistry of alkyd resins
2.3.1.1 Alcoholysis process
2.3.1.2 Acidolysis process
2.3.1.3 Fatty acid process
2.3.2 Raw materials for alkyd resins
2.3.2.1 Fatty acids and oils
2.3.2.2 Polyhydric alcohols
2.3.2.3 Polybasic acids
2.3.2.4 Monobasic acids
2.3.3 Processing of alkyd resins
2.3.4 Classification of alkyd resins
2.3.5 Effect of oil modification on properties
2.3.6 Modifications of alkyd resin
2.3.7 High-solid alkyd resins
2.3.8 Waterbased alkyds
2.3.8.1 Water-reducible alkyds
2.3.8.2 Alkyd emulsions
2.3.9 Hyperbranched alkyd resins
2.4 Saturated polyesters
2.4.1 Chemistry of polyester resins
2.4.2 Formulation and raw material selection
2.4.3 High-solid resins.
2.4.4 Water-reducible polyesters.
2.4.5 Polyesters for powder coatings.
2.4.6 Curing of saturated polyester resins
2.4.6.1 Amino resin cross-linkers
2.4.6.2 Polyisocyanate cross-linkers
2.4.6.3 Epoxy resins
2.4.7 Applications in coatings
2.5 Unsaturated polyester resins
2.5.1 Chemistry of unsaturated polyester resins.
2.5.2 Curing aspects
2.5.3 Applications of unsaturated polyester resins
2.6 Phenolic resins
2.6.1 Raw materials for phenolic resins
2.6.2 Reaction chemistry.
2.6.2.1 Resoles.
2.6.2.2 Novolacs
2.6.3 Modified phenolic resins.
2.7 Amino resins
2.7.1 Chemistry of amino resins
2.7.2 Types of amino resins.
2.7.3 Use of aminoplasts in coatings
2.8 Acrylic resins.
2.8.1 Polymer composition and properties
2.8.2 Acrylic resin types
2.8.2.1 Solution acrylic resins
2.8.2.2 Waterborne acrylic resin dispersions
2.8.2.3 Acrylic resins for high-solid coatings
2.8.2.4 Acrylic resins for powder coatings
2.8.2.5 Acrylic resins for radiation curable coatings
2.9 Epoxy resins
2.9.1 Types of epoxy resins
2.9.1.1 Bisphenol A epoxy resins
2.9.1.2 Bisphenol F epoxy resins
2.9.1.3 Epoxy novolac resins and high functionality epoxy resins
2.9.1.4 Brominated BPA epoxy resins.
2.9.1.5 Cardanol-based epoxy resins
2.9.1.6 Light fast epoxy resins
2.9.1.7 Other epoxy resins and reactive diluents
2.9.1.8 Resins with internal epoxy groups
2.9.2 Modified epoxy resins
2.9.2.1 Epoxy esters
2.9.2.2 Epoxy acrylates
2.9.3 Curing agents for epoxy resins
2.9.3.1 Amine curing agents
2.9.3.2 Polymercaptans (polythiols)
2.9.3.3 Polyisocyanates
2.9.3.4 Carboxylic acids and anhydrides.
2.9.3.5 Phenolic and amino resins.
2.9.3.6 Self-cross-linking (epoxy homopolymerization).
2.9.4 Waterborne epoxy systems
2.9.4.1 Emulsified system (type I)
2.9.4.2 Emulsified systems (type II)
2.9.4.3 Water-reducible systems.
2.10 Polyamides
2.10.1 Reactive polyamides.
2.10.2 Non-reactive polyamide resins.
2.10.3 Polyimides and polyamide-imides
2.11 Polyurethanes
2.11.1 Isocyanate compounds
2.11.2 Polyols
2.11.3 Polyurethane resins and coating systems.
2.11.3.1 Two-component polyurethane resin systems
2.11.3.2 One-component polyurethane resin systems
2.11.3.3 Waterborne polyurethanes
2.12 Silicone resins
2.12.1 Chemistry of silicone resins
2.12.2 Pure silicone resins
2.12.2.1 Types of pure silicone resin
2.12.2.2 Curing
2.12.3 Blends of silicone resins.
2.12.4 Modified silicone resins
2.12.5 Silicone modified resins
2.12.6 Waterbased silicone resins
2.12.7 Ethyl silicate
2.13 Cellulosic binders
2.13.1 Nitrocellulose
2.13.2 Esters of cellulose.
2.13.2.1 Ethyl cellulose
2.14 Hydrocarbon resins (petroleum resins)
2.14.1 Coumarone indene resins.
2.14.2 Petroleum oil derived hydrocarbon resins
3 Pigments
3.1 Introduction
3.1.1 Functions of pigments.
3.1.1.1 Aesthetic functions
3.1.1.2 Protective functions
3.1.1.3 Other functions
3.1.2 Nomenclature – the Colour Index system.
3.1.3 Classification of pigments.
3.1.3.1 Classification based on color.
3.1.3.2 Classification based on chemical nature
3.2 Important properties of pigments.
3.2.1 Optical properties
3.2.1.1 Color.
3.2.1.2 Opacity
3.2.1.3 Tinting strength and lightening power
3.2.2 Physical properties
3.2.2.1 Solubility
3.2.2.2 Density
3.2.2.3 Particle size
3.2.2.4 Particle shape
3.2.2.5 Texture of pigments (dispersibility)
3.2.2.6 Oil absorption value
3.2.3 Chemical and performance properties.
3.2.3.1 Chemical purity.
3.2.3.2 Resistance to chemicals.
3.2.3.3 Reactivity of pigments
3.2.3.4 Resistance to oxidative degradation
3.2.3.5 Light fastness
3.2.3.6 Weather fastness
3.2.4 Environmental and toxicological perspectives
3.3 Inorganic pigments
3.3.1 White pigments
3.3.1.1 Titanium dioxide
3.3.1.2 Zinc oxide
3.3.1.3 Zinc sulfide and lithopone
3.3.1.4 Antimony oxide
3.3.1.5 White lead pigments
3.3.2 Black pigments
3.3.2.1 Carbon black
3.3.3 Colored inorganic pigments
3.3.3.1 Iron oxides.
3.3.3.2 Chromium oxide pigments
3.3.3.3 Iron blue.
3.3.3.4 Ultramarine blue
3.3.3.5 Chromate pigments
3.3.3.6 Cadmium pigments
3.3.4 High performance inorganic pigments
3.3.4.1 Bismuth vanadate pigments
3.3.4.2 Cerium pigments
3.3.4.3 Complex inorganic color pigments
3.3.5 Metallic pigments
3.3.5.1 Aluminum pigments.
3.3.5.2 Zinc pigments.
3.3.5.3 Bronze pigments
3.3.6 Anticorrosive pigments.
3.3.6.1 Lead pigments.
3.3.6.2 Chromate pigments
3.3.6.3 Phosphate pigments
3.3.6.4 Phosphite pigments
3.3.6.5 Borates
3.3.6.6 Molybdate pigments.
3.3.7 Extenders
3.3.7.1 Carbonates
3.3.7.2 Silica (SiO2)
3.3.7.3 Sulfates
3.3.7.4 Silicates
3.3.8 Special effect pigments
3.4 Organic pigments
3.4.1 Azo pigments.
3.4.1.1 Monoazo pigments
3.4.1.2 Diazo pigments.
3.4.1.3 Salt-type azo pigments
3.4.1.4 Azo complex pigments
3.4.1.5 Azo condensation pigments
3.4.1.6 Isoindolinone and isoindoline pigments
3.4.2 Polycyclic pigments (non-azo pigments)
3.4.2.1 Phthalocyanine pigments
3.4.2.2 Quinacridone pigments
3.4.2.3 Anthraquinone pigments
3.4.2.4 Perylene and perinone pigments
3.4.2.5 Thioindigo pigments
3.4.2.6 Dioxazine pigments
3.4.2.7 Diketopyrrolopyrrole pigments
4 Solvents.
4.1 Introduction.
4.2 Theory of solvency
4.2.1 Solubility parameters
4.3 Important characteristics of solvents
4.3.1 Solvency
4.3.2 Evaporation rate.
4.3.3 Other performance properties
4.3.3.1 Moisture content
4.3.3.2 Aromatic content
4.3.4 Physical properties
4.3.4.1 Surface tension
4.3.4.2 Boiling point and distillation range
4.3.4.3 Flash point
4.3.4.4 Density and specific gravity
4.3.4.5 Color
4.3.4.6 Refractive index
4.3.4.7 Electrical resistivity
4.3.4.8 Purity and composition
4.4 Classification of solvents
used in the coating industry
4.4.1 Hydrocarbon solvents
4.4.1.1 Aliphatic hydrocarbons
4.4.1.2 Cycloaliphatic hydrocarbons
4.4.1.3 Terpene hydrocarbons
4.4.1.4 Aromatic hydrocarbons
4.4.2 Oxygenated solvents
4.4.2.1 Alcohols
4.4.2.2 Ketones
4.4.2.3 Esters
4.4.2.4 Glycol ethers
4.4.2.5 Other oxygenated solvents
4.4.3 Other solvents
4.4.3.1 Chlorinated hydrocarbons
4.4.3.2 N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone
4.5 Toxicity and occupational health
4.6 Environmental aspects
5 Additives
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Wetting and dispersing agents
5.2.1 Pigment dispersion process
5.2.1.1 Wetting34
5.2.1.2 Grinding
5.2.1.3 Dispersion
5.2.2 Chemical composition of wetting and dispersing agents
5.2.3 Flooding and floating
5.2.4 Polymeric dispersing agents
5.2.5 Deflocculating agents and controlled flocculating agents
5.3 Rheology additives
5.3.1 Rheology and its role in coatings
5.3.2 Thickeners for solventbased coatings
5.3.2.1 Organoclays.
5.3.2.2 Fumed silica.
5.3.2.3 Metal soaps
5.3.2.4 Overbased sulfonates
5.3.2.5 Organic thickeners
5.3.3 Thickeners for waterbased coatings
5.3.3.1 Acrylic thickeners
5.3.3.2 Cellulosic thickeners
5.3.3.3 Associative cellulosic thickeners
5.3.3.4 Associative acrylic thickeners
5.3.3.5 Hydrophobically modified ethoxylated urethanes
5.4 Flow and leveling agents
5.4.1 Solvents
5.4.2 Polymeric leveling agents
5.4.2.1 Polyacrylates.
5.4.2.2 Cellulose acetobutyrate
5.4.2.3 Other polymers
5.4.3 Silicones
5.4.4 Fluorosurfactants
5.5 Defoaming and anti-foaming additives
5.5.1 Foam formation and film stabilization
5.5.1.1 Electrostatic repulsion effect
5.5.1.2 Marangoni effect (Gibbs elasticity)
5.5.2 Defoamers and anti-foam
5.5.2.1 Requirements for defoamers
5.5.2.2 Composition of defoamers
5.6 Additives for surface modification
5.6.1 Slip and mar additives
5.6.2 Matting agents.
5.7 Adhesion promoters
5.8 Additives for film formation
5.8.1 Driers
5.8.2 Curing catalysts.
5.8.2.1 Catalysts for polyurethane coatings
5.8.2.2 Catalysts for epoxy system
5.8.2.3 Acid catalysts for baking systems.
5.8.3 Photoinitiators
5.8.4 Coalescing agents
5.9 Anti-skinning agents
5.9.1 Types of anti-skinning agents
5.9.1.1 Phenols.
5.9.1.2 Oximes
5.10 Light stabilizers
5.10.1 UV absorbers.
5.10.2 Radical scavengers
5.11 Biocides
5.11.1 In-can preservatives
5.11.2 Dry-film preservatives
5.12 Corrosion inhibitors
5.12.1 Flash-rust inhibitors
5.11.2 Inhibitors for long-term protection
5.13 Freeze-thaw stabilizers.
5.14 Moisture scavengers
5.15 Additives to modify conductivity
Authors.
Index.

Understanding Coatings Raw Materials Hardcover
by Vijay Mannari (Author), Chintankumar J. Patel (Author)



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